Saturday, March 14, 2020

Behavior Modification Essays

Behavior Modification Essays Behavior Modification Essay Behavior Modification Essay Applied behavior analysis can be used in all walks of life; its amazing to see how beneficial it can be to enhance someones life such as helping to improve an athletes game to change classroom behaviors. For the two scenarios the rationale for each selected behavioral modification strategy will be explained, discuss behavioral chaining, using of token economies for classrooms, mastering units of behavior, and end by discussing the role of back up reinforcers. Goal: Improving Brendans Serve Brendan is a 17-year-old tennis player that wishes to improve his game. Brendans coach referred him to a sports psychologist to assist him with improving his serve. Achieving his overall goal of serving with the correct speed and accuracy to help him win his matches is the target behavior that needs modification. I must admit before this chapter, I didnt even know that behavior analysis could help improve an athletes game. It is rather fascinating. The sports psychologist decided which behavior modification would best suit Brendans needs by interviewing him, reviewing videotapes of his serve, and considering which strategy would fit him personally for the task he is performing. The result the psychologist chose was the strategy of behavior chaining. An alternative that he could have chosen was shaping reinforcement, but that is found to be time consuming and with Brendans competitive drive, I am sure he wanted results as soon as possible. To help improve Brendans serve, the psychologist would complete what is known as a task analysis of the components of the behavioral sequence or indentify all the different stimulus-response components in the chain. (What is behavioral, 2011). With Brendan, it was determined that each step of his serve be broken down into separate units or steps. The units in this scenario include: the starting position, ball toss, swing of the racket back, acceleration of the racket, contact with the ball, and the final unit consisting of follow-through. There are different behavior chaining methods, for determining which method to use for each individual you must decide which procedure to use to teach the new sequence of behavior. For Brendan, I believe forward chaining, teaching the chain from the beginning to the end are taught so it flows through its naturally occurring order so that he receives training on each step as he proceeds to the next. You could use total-task chaining, being taught all at once when reinforcement depends on completing the entire chain, but with this case it is best to get each step broken down to work on each one individually. A behavior chain is a sequence of certain responses; it can be broken down into smaller steps using task analysis. It involves reinforcing individual responses that occur in a sequence that are linked together to achieve a certain behavior and produce a terminal outcome. After the initial unit has been reinforced, known as the primary reinforcement, then each response in the chain simultaneously serves as a secondary reinforcer for the response that produced it and as a discriminative stimulus for the next response in the chain (Cooper, Heron, Howard, 2007). Each step of this chain must be followed in its naturally occurring order for this task. Once each unit of the task has been achieved, then reinforcement has been acquired for that behavior in the sequence and then going on to the next unit until reinforcement has been made for each of the units in the chain. If the targeted skill has been achieved, then the procedure is considered to be effective. Effectiveness and efficiency of teaching can be determined to be critical factors in evaluating chaining procedures. Efficiency is defined as the number of learning trials or time it takes to reach the criterion performance, as well as the number of errors that occur in order to achieve acquisition (Gast, Doyle, Wolery, Ault, 1991). If there is difficulty with mastering an aspect of the behavior chain, the behaviorist should allow for adjustments in the task analysis and allow for more extensive training on certain parts of more difficult units in order to achieve reinforcement to the ultimate goal of mastery. In order to achieve mastery level of unit behavior, you take the individual units in sequence and have demonstrated mastery for the completion for each unit and concrete observable criterion for mastery of each unit. Brendan must continue reinforcement to maintain behavior or his performance may suffer. Token Economy for Ms. Rileys Class For the case of Ms. Riley and her energetic third-grade class, an ABA professional came up with the idea for implementing a token economy system to help with a goal of trying to settle them down enough to learn. A token economy is defined as a system in which individuals can earn tokens for targeted behaviors and once a specified number of tokens have been earned, they can be traded in for an item or activity that is desired. For a classroom that needs a behavior modification program in place, token economies can be used to meet educational and behavioral goals for children. Since no other teacher has been able to accomplish this with class, a reward system with tokens may be a way to focus their attention for meeting their desired behaviors, it clearly seems as it would be the best rationale. Tokens function as a conditioned reinforcer to achieve the target behavior. Token economies are designed using six steps. The first step is to select the tokens that will be used; in this case it is a puzzle piece. The children will have a puzzle on the wall, each day they meet their desired behavior, they earn a puzzle piece to be glued to the puzzle. This way they can clearly see how they are progressing and how far they have to go to earn their prize. The puzzle on the wall can serve as a reminder and reinforcer to behave, which includes; no fighting, remain seated during class, raising hands to answer problems or ask a question, and completing assignments in class. Step two consists of identifying the target behavior and rules. We already know the target behavior is to settle down to be able to learn, so the rules are as follows: there is a ten piece puzzle on the wall, for each, the class will receive a puzzle piece, when the puzzle is complete, the class will have a pizza party and no homework assigned for two weekends in a row. The third step is choosing back up reinforcers. In this case, the children seem very energetic; some backup reinforcers can include an extra long recess, watching a movie, or playing games. Backup reinforcers can help the children to see that they can actually earn rewards for good behavior in addition to waiting to celebrate their party. In this case, in addition to the party prize, if the children go five days in a row obtaining a puzzle piece they will get one of these of the backup reinforcers rewarded. Step four is establishing a ratio of exchange meaning at first, the ratio between the number of tokens and the price of backup items should be small so the learners success is immediate, gradually adjusting the ratio exchange to maintain responsiveness of the children (Cooper, Howard, ; Heron, 2007). Step five is specifying in writing, when and how tokens will be rewarded and what happens if the requirements are not met, basically laying out the rules. We have already established how tokens are earned, but some actions need to be focused on, such as students fighting or acting out, there will be no bonus of the backup reinforcer incentive for that week. Most children like additional recesses or extra incentives and if someone messes that up, they might use peer pressure to stop it from happening again. The last step is conducting a field test before implementation. A few days before starting the token economy, observe the children and tally to see if they would have earned a puzzle piece without actually giving them one and decide if they system is appropriate for the children. Being a parent of three children I know kids like to be rewarded and as a parent we enjoy giving our children treats and rewards for behaving and acting appropriately. They dont have to be anything big, just a little extra perk now and then to thank them for being good and showing our appreciation for behaving. The same principle works for classes, what kid wouldnt behave to receive a pizza party or no homework for a couple weekends? Conclusion Each case used different methods for behavioral modification, I hope that I was able to clearly identify the rationale behind each of the ABA professionals choices, and discuss what they were and how and why they would help each scenario. References Cooper, J. , Heron, T. Howard, W. (2007). Applied behavior analysis. (2nd Edition). Upper Saddler River, NJ: Pearson Education. Gast, D. , Doyle, P. , Wolery, M. , Ault, M. , (1991). Assessing the acquisition of incidental information by secondary-age students with mental retardation: comparison of response prompting strategies. American Journal of Mental Retardation. 1991;96:63-80. What is behavioral chaining?. (2011). Retrieved from allsands. com/Health/behavioralchain_vyl_gn. htm

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 111

Assignment Example These are embodied by International Law which I want to delve into in the following essay: International Law refers to a body of statutes, protocols, rules, principles, and guidelines that binds all the law actors. The actors include states, nations, peoples, insurgents, private individuals, as well as, international bodies. These rules are mostly derived from various sources such as Treaties, Convention, Customs and practices of the member states and nations.  International law acts as a guide, and promotes good faith. It facilitates the call for peace and harmony by ensuring that justice, peace and human rights are followed and enforced2. As an analogy, the law acts as an electric fence which rather than define the acts to be accomplished defines and sets out the boundaries to be considered within the free human acts, and in the notion that every actor has their own interests in each undertaking or contract with another actor. It is therefore of utmost relevance in the discussion of International Relations.   One of the intended learning outcomes in our course outline is to identify the interconnection between the various actors in the international system. As from the aforementioned actors of the international law, we can identify that some are major while others are minors. An example of a major actor would be an International body or an Inter-Governmental Organization (IGO) while a minor actor would be a private individuals and tourists3. The relationships between these actors have to be controlled to prevent any form of harassment of the minor actor by the major actor. In a case whereby a certain state feels that its laws are being violated by another, it may seek the application of the International Law to resolve the dispute. In addition, transactions and contracts, for example, between an   Ã‚  In summary, International Law is a key and critical aspect of the International relations in every respect regarding the interactions between the various actors

Monday, February 10, 2020

Business Ethics and Consequentialism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Business Ethics and Consequentialism - Essay Example Ethics compliance includes implementing acts that serve the common good for the greater number of recipients. 1.Utilitarian ethics issues in this Case. There are utilitarian ethics issues in the case of the pacemaker case. The electronics company can generate the greater good to the greatest number of people. The principle of consequentialism or utilitiarian ethics states that the end justifies the means. The correct action is that action that brings out the greatest good to the entire community or population ( For example, it is a common good to kill a convicted felon to prevent individuals from committing the same illegal acts (Portmore, 2011). Jeremy Bentham insisted that correct actions are those that bring about or increase happiness, and reduce pain ( Applying the above consequentialism theory to the case, producing the electronic parts of the pace maker produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people ( The purpose of the pacemaker is to prolong the life of the dying person. Without a heart, the person will die. The pacemaker helps the heart beat. Without the pacemaker, the person would die a natural death. Consequently, the pacemaker prolongs the life of the pacemaker recipient for several years. By focusing on helping the pacemaker manufacturer improve the functional quality of the pacemakers, the electronics company helps increase the success of the pacemakers. Consequently, there is an increase in the pacemaker’s capacity to keep the failing human heart from stopping its continuous beating motion ( 2) Jeremy Bentham Concept on the Case. Jeremy Bentham, father of utilitarianism, will rightly approve the decision to continue producing the electronic parts of the pacemakers. By helping the pacemaker manufacturers improve the functional quality of the pacemakers, the electronics company increases the functional quality of the pacemakers. Consequently, the pacemaker adds more years to the dying patients’ lives. For the dying person, adding more years to one’s earthly life is a greater good when compared to just letting the patient die a natural death (Bentham, 2009). The popularity of the pacemaker is its capacity to prolong the dying person’s life by stimulating the non-beating heart to beat. Without the pacemakers’ stimulating motion, the patient would have died instantly. The improved pacemakers will increase the patients’ and their families’ pleasure of having their dying relative live additional years on earth and avoiding the pain of losing their dying relative at an earlier date. 3. Utility test. Step A. There are three alternatives. The first alternative is to stop supplying the electronic parts of the pac emakers. Second, the electronics company will continue producing the electronic parts of the pacemakers and coordinate with the pacemaker company to improve the success rate of the pacemakers (Mandal, 2010). Step B. The are consequences and costs of each alternative. In terms of alternative 1, the short term and long term benefits (consequences) include removing the possible of future medical suits from the pacemaker patients and being wrongly blamed for the pacemaker’

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Utopian Societies Essay Example for Free

Utopian Societies Essay Utopian societies are in constant struggle to find perfection in everyday life. In Fahrenheit 451 and The Handmaid’s Tale, each protagonist is struggling with fitting into these boundaries of perfection. When inquisitive minds emerge in a society that strives to be so pure, it can become dangerous not only physically but also emotionally. Although these societies strive for a utopia thinking that it will allow them to reach perfection, it in fact ends in hypocrisy. Hypocrisy is seen in both Fahrenheit 451 and The Handmaid’s Tale through Captain Beatty and the power of books, the government taking Offred’s daughter, and both societies basing their beliefs off of fiction. In Fahrenheit 451 Captain Beatty, a leader and someone to whom the firefighters look up to, has read and made up his own mind about books but will not allow anyone else to read the books which he knows hold so much power. By denying the people to read the books that he himself has read, Beatty is the epitome of a hypocrite. When speaking about the books it is obvious that Beatty understands the great power these books yield, but he refuses to let that power out. This is hypocritical because Beatty tells Montag that the books say nothing! You can teach or believe (Bradbury 59) and yet he still believes that these books have to have enough power that the world must be rid of them. Although Beatty preaches the uselessness of books, he has dedicated his life to burning them all, an admittance in itself that the books hold enough power to change the ideals of the society in which they live. In The Handmaids Tale Offred is accused of being an unfit (Atwood 39) mother for her daughter because of her past. Offred met her husband through being his mistress, but waited until marriage to have a child. The government uses their affair against them, convincing Offred that because the bible says that adultery is a sin that she is not fit to be a mother. To make-up for her affair and illegitimate child, the government gives Offred a choice between being a Handmaid or an un-woman and chooses to become a handmaid. Her duties as a Handmaid, however, are to repeat the same sin that plagued her with this destiny. The hypocrisy surrounding this society and Offreds role in it is that to dissolve yourself of sins, you must keep repeating them. This kind of adultery is seen as righteous because this society bases their beliefs off of the Bible, which, in the story of Rachel and Jacob, deems an affair for the purposes of child bearing as necessary. Through allowing Offred to rid herself of her sins by sleeping with married men, the government is a hypocrisy that uses the Bible to justify their cause. In both novels, each society is based off of myths that cannot be proved or seen. In Fahrenheit 451, Bradburys society follows a strict code of the phoenix: it must all burn to ashes before it can be reborn again. Taking this literally, the society decides that books must be the rebirth of the society, burn[ing] all books (Bradbury 57). The only problem with this is that the Phoenix is based off of mythology, only existing in fiction. Bradburys society is striving to reach a new mythical beginning, setting themselves up for disaster. Likewise, in Atwoods utopian society, their new rules and regulations are based off of the Bible, a book of stories that cannot be proved as non-fiction and are more fantasy than realistic. Many of the stories and rules of the Bible are out dated. The society picks and chooses what rules and commandments they want to follow, reverting themselves back to a lesser time. By basing their societies off of myth, both Bradbury and Atwood depict men and women who are constantly influenced by hypocrisy. They are forced to believe blindly that these myths will lead them into safety and a better future. Each society comes with a promise of better times, but by basing it off of mythology they are striving for perfection which can only lead them down the road of disaster. In both Bradbury and Atwoods utopian societies, the government strives for perfection by changing the standards that their people live by. Although their is revolt and questioning in the means of these changes, it is ultimately at the blame of the people of the societies themselves. In Fahrenheit 451, the minorities (Bradbury 57) are the ones who begin the banning of the books, but because their are so many minorities, every book must go. Likewise in The Handmaids Tale, the men of the society agree to the changes which affect everyone, reverting their society back to a time where there was no technology or developments. By leading the change of the societies, the people are the only ones to blame for their societys hypocrisy and ultimate downfall. Citations Atwood, Margaret. The Handmaids Tale. New York: Anchor, 1986. Print. Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. New York: Simon Schuster Paperbacks, 1951. Print.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Comparing Walt Whitman and Ralph Emerson :: comparison compare contrast essays

Comparing Walt Whitman and Ralph Emerson Walt Whitman is Jay Leno and Ralph Emerson is Ed Hall. Walt takes the instructions announced by Emerson and runs gallantly with them making beautiful and insightful poetry. Walt Whitman and Ralph Emerson spoke out in an age where society was not ready for such dramatic writers. Whitman uses several of Emerson's topics and styles to be that good poet. Whitman elaborates on the characteristics of a poet, freedom, children, and animals. In order to understand any comparison of the two author's one must first read and comprehend that Emerson's writing are clearly an instruction manual that Whitman adopts in order to become an outstanding poet. Emerson believes we must, "look in vain for the poet whom I describe. We do not, with sufficient plainness, or sufficient profoundness, address ourselves to life, nor dare we chaunt our own times and social circumstances. If we filled the day with bravery, we should not shrink from celebrating it. Time and nature yield us many gifts, but not yet the timely man, the new religion, the reconciler, whom all things await" (Emerson 1653). Emerson is stating how everything can be a poem and a poet can reflect on valuable resources like nature to draw on and write. Whitman clearly uses this guide in order to write his poetry. He agrees that nature is a valuable tool. In addition, Whitman elaborates that any person and any nature is in itself poet and poem. He thinks America is full of poets. Whitman reflects saying, "I celebrate myself, and what I assume you shall assume, for every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you. I loafe and invite my soul . . . houses and rooms full of perfumes . . . the shelves are crowed with perfumes" (Whitman 2743). Whitman expresses himself and how he wants others to take notice and realize poetry is all around. People want freedom, and this characteristic is a focus in both poet's works. In Emerson freedom is referred to as, "the ancient British bards had for the title of their order, 'Those who are free throughout the world.' They are free, and they make free"(Emerson 1657).

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Dementia: Alzheimer’s Disease and People

Isabel Ramirez Comp105 Mrs. Doonan 11 December 2012 Dementia affecting the lives of many Sometimes the word Dementia can be quite scary to hear and quite frankly it is pretty scary to hear. Many people don’t really take the time to stop and realize that it might be something that can be life threating and without them even knowing they might already be having some of the early symptoms. There is no such thing as going in to the doctor to early and getting checked out for dementia.Once someone gets dementia there is no way on turning back and the best they can do it getting treatment. Approximately every sixty eight seconds someone in America will develop dementia, some even without them knowing it. Dementia is something that no one wants to know that they have because of the dramatic life changes that if will have in someone’s life. Dementia having many effects on older people like having to get treatment and the many symptoms they go through can be very overwhelming.Ma ny people know that dementia is a disease in which the memory is affected, but that’s not all dementia is. Every sixty eight seconds someone in America develops dementia. (AHAF) Dementia actually means loss of mentation and thinking. (Fisher) It is a disease that degenerates the brain which affects the memory. (AHAF) Dementia is a progressive disease that has a big impact not only on the person that is diagnosed with dementia but also their family and friends that are around. Perry) Many people describe dementias symptoms with loss of memory, judgment, language even motor skills, meaning that many people can’t do a lot of their daily activities normally by themselves. (Fisher) Caring for someone with dementia can be extremely difficult and have a lot of emotional stress. Dementia is a disease the many describe as a disease that eats someone’s brain slowly causing that person to start forgetting things. (AHAF) Dementia isn’t a disease that is on its own it has many forms to which it attacks a person. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia. Fisher) Dementia having many shapes and sizes can be hard on older people. Dementia does have many shapes and sizes because there is different types of dementias in which can affect the person slowly or really fast. The forms of dementia are classified by the area of the brain that gets affected and the degree of progression. (Westerby) Since there are so many different forms of dementia, drugs might only be available for some of them. Yes, there is many kind of dementia but the two most common forms are Parkton’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Fisher) About sixty percent of the people that develop Alzheimer’s, fifteen through thirty percent develop vascular dementia, four through twenty percent develop lewy body and two percent develop frontal temporal dementia. Mainly all forms of dementia are progressive except Vascular Dementia. Alzheimer’s mainly affects older people and mainly women get this kind of dementia. Lewy Body dementia mainly affects older people. Vascular dementia mainly affects people that have diabetes. Frontal Temporal dementia affects mostly the people that are under sixty five and mainly men. Elkins) Some people might get mixed dementia where there might be one or more cases of dementia combined together. (Perry) One of the hardest things of dementia is the symptoms they have and later finding out someone has dementia through diagnostic can be a very tragic moment. The earliest symptom is memory loss with that also not being able to think right can really confuse a person. (Fisher) Patients might have a hard time arranging plans and which ends up leading to the major memory loss. Movement of everyday became more difficult. Perry) That’s why trying to diagnose dementia soon is very important, the sooner is diagnosed the sooner medication can be given out which can help from it progressing really fast. Cognitive test are necessary in being able to decide whether dementia is there or not. (Westerby) There is a physical exam done to help identify why they have dementia. Another thing they really take in consideration is history of mental or behavioral symptoms. (AHAF) There is an assessment that is done which is called Mini Mental State Examination.There is so many ways that people can get tested and find out pretty soon, like getting lab test done is a fast and effective way. (Perry) Out of all of them the most effective way and proven to be one hundred percent effective is brain autopsy. (AHAF) Finding out which stage of dementia you have might be hard because of the many ad different types of dementia there are. That is why it is very important to that if someone has any of the symptoms to get them checked out because the faster you get diagnosed the more likely you will be able to get some medication that will slow down the progression. Perry) The risk factors that can giv e you dementia or bring along can be too much to handle for someone at any age. Even though dementia can happen at any time of life, it has a dramatic increase as age increases too. (Perry) There are two big risk factors that really play a big role when getting dementia, which are age and genetics. Many people can get dementia because it is in their genes and past generations in their family have gotten so it is more likely that they get it. Approximately five percent of Americans between the ages of sixty five and seventy four get dementia. AHAF) People who smoke, have hypertension, high cholesterol, and are obese have a greater risk in getting dementia. People who have Parkinson’s disease and have had a stroke are also greater at risk. (Westerby) People with dementia might be seeing things that aren’t really there which can be very dangerous for them to be alone in their own home. (Fisher) About thirty six and a half percent of people with dementia live in a home car e facility the other sixty three and a half percent are taken care of in their own home by some family member. Westerby) When the dementia is advanced people become dependent for everything with their care. (Fisher) Mobility gets harder so there could be a greater risk of falls. There might also be a great loss of appetite and a dramatic change in their weight. (Perry) As often as possible try drawling things for the patient that way they can visualize the things better and they might remember them more. (Elkins) Asking people with dementia direct questions really stresses them out and they fell like they are put in the stop.So yes it is a really serious disease and in most cases it is too much for someone to handle at any age. Sometimes the treatments are not always enough when trying to get rid of dementia and the results can be pretty fatal. It is better to keep the person in their own home. That way they could keep their daily routine and they can remember where their things are located at. Moving someone out of their home when they are very confused already isn’t going to help them out much. (Perry) When diagnosed it is recommended for the patient and the family to get ongoing support.This way the family can know of ways to help the person and also the patient knows the truth of dementia. (Westerby) Alzheimer’s is terminal and had no known cure. (AHAF) No Treatment yet recognized, but one big risk factor is diabetes and hypertension. (Perry) The average time of life they have would range from five though twenty years. (Fisher) The three year survival rate for vascular dementia for people over the age of eighty five is sixty seven percent. For people who develop Alzheimer’s after a stroke there is a thirty nine percent survival rate.People with Alzheimer’s in general have a forty three survival rate. (Perry) Out of all the causes of death infection is the most common. (Fisher) Yes, Dementia is very hard and a lot to handle for o lder people, there isn’t a known treatment that is for sure going to get rid of the dementia someone has and the symptoms can be very frustrating. That’s why having the help of family members and friends that are around the person is very necessary to be able to live with a disease that eats your brain a little more each day causing that person to forget things from their past.It is a scary disease that no one wishes to ever get, but once someone has it there is no way back. As soon as they start to notice some of the symptoms it is better to go get themselves checked that why there can be some medication that can help its progression. Being able to detect it early improve the quality of life and the lifelong out comes the patient has for the rest of their lives. Always keep in mind this is a disease that attacks someone in the America every sixty eight seconds, many without even knowing.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Case Summary - 642 Words

Dawei Chen Case Summary- Confucius, Machiavelli, and Rousseau According to the Case context, we can find out many ideas about leadership. First, from the great Chinese ancient philosopher-Confucius that we can learn that a phenomenal leader needs to love people and use virtue to rule a society. The ultimate goal for a leader is to fulfill everyone’s demand. In order to achieve this goal; a leader must be a sage or at least a very wise man to set up a very extraordinary example for others to learn. However, this opinion has a very obvious flaw that people cannot be as good as he think and most people are selfish that this kind of leadership is not going to be successful. Second, From the Machiavelli, we can acquire the idea which†¦show more content†¦second, their leadership and opinions exhibit us a great culture diversity. In Eastern culture in particular in China because of the long history, there were lots of great leaders in their history; this situation es tablishes a social structure that people prefer to have a great sage such as Confucius to lead their lives rather than the social contract (law). Moreover, in this social structure, leaders need to be a very excellent man to lead the direction of social development, but sometimes it does not work very well because most leaders are flawed normal people. Compare this circumstance to the Western, most Western states does not have such long history this lead to a quite different situation. Even if there were lots of great leader people still prefer to set a conference to discuss the social problems. This idea could be dated from the ancient Grace. In recent period particularly in revolution era this idea spread very fast and filled into people very deeply. This shows us very obvious assertion that leaders need to use different strategies in different culture background. Third, leaders need to combine different skills to achieve a successful leadership. In human history, society are chan ging very fast, many ideologists and wise man once gave us the idea that what is leadership. In my eyes, a competent leadership is a combination ofShow MoreRelatedSummary Of Eveline And A Painful Case 1017 Words   |  5 PagesAuthorLastName2 Paralysis of the Main Characters in â€Å"Eveline† and â€Å"A Painful Case† The two characters in Dubliners short stories; Mr. Duffy and Eveline present strong feeling of paralysis throughout the excerpts. Mr. Duffy lives in Chapelzoid suburbs of Dublin, and he considers life of the city unpleasant and pretentious. He lives in dull old house which he ordinarily sits near the window where he can view the city from the distance. 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